And Sangeeta R.

Philip R . Schauer, M.D., Deepak L. Bhatt, M.D., M.P.H., John P. Kirwan, Ph.D., Kathy Wolski, M.P.H., Stacy A. Brethauer, M.D., Sankar D. Navaneethan, M.D., M.P.H., Ali Aminian, M.D., Claire E. Pothier, M.P.H., Esther S.H. Kim, M.D., M.P.H., Steven E. Nissen, M.D., and Sangeeta R. Kashyap, M.D.1 Observational research2-5 and randomized, controlled trials6-10 show that techniques including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, gastric banding, and biliopancreatic diversion improve glycemic control and favorably affect cardiovascular risk factors significantly. In the Surgical Treatment and Medications Potentially Eradicate Diabetes Efficiently trial, we found that 1 year after randomization, gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy were superior to intensive medical therapy alone in achieving glycemic control and reducing cardiovascular risk factors while decreasing dependency on pharmacotherapy for diabetes administration.7 Although bariatric medical operation yields short-term improvements in glycemic control, questions remain relating to the durability of the metabolic benefits of surgery, long-term safety, quality of life, and results on diabetes-related end-organ disease.

The patients had human brain scans before and after chemoradiation, but an adequate number of images were obtained from only eight of the sufferers. Those pictures revealed a significant reduction in whole brain volume – – the overall amount of brain tissue – – throughout chemoradiation. The reduction of brain tissue became apparent within a couple weeks after the start of chemoradiation and was mainly observed in gray matter. The scans also showed that the size of the brain’s ventricles – – cerebrospinal fluid-filled areas deep within the brain – – grew progressively larger during chemoradiation. Changes were detected within the subventricular zone also, 1 of 2 structures in which new mind cells are generated in adults. The study was published in the journal Neurology recently.