Specifically, multi-dose administration of a GalNAc-siRNA targeting ALAS-1 resulted in rapid, dose-dependent, and long-lasting knockdown of the ALAS-1 mRNA in non-human primates, with an ED50 of around 1.25 mg/kg. Further, in a rat model of AIP, ALN-AS1 administration at doses only 2.5 mg/kg resulted in a complete blunting of phenobarbital-induced over-production of PBG and ALA, the toxic heme intermediates in AIP. The business now programs to initiate IND-enabling research with the purpose of filing an IND in 2014. In addition, Alnylam researchers presented new pre-clinical data on the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of GalNAc-siRNA conjugates. Results showed that focus on gene silencing is achieved at very low levels of liver tissue exposure.Get yourself a hysterectomy – – and despite medical advances in recent years, some will face a longer, more painful recovery than they could have needed. That’s because newer, less invasive surgical procedures aren’t being fully implemented still. Hysterectomy – – surgery to eliminate all or section of the uterus and occasionally other areas of the reproductive program like the ovaries and fallopian tubes aswell – – is the second most common medical procedure for American females, after C-section, according to the U.S. Section of Human and Health Services. Experts say that prior to going through with the procedure, there are several important questions females should inquire their doctors, and several surgical options they should know about.